Why Vitamin B3 Is Essential for Proper Health
Every single cell in the human body requires vitamin B3 to function properly. Vitamin B3, also called niacin, helps convert food to energy. It also improves circulation, suppresses inflammation, and helps the body make sex and stress-related hormones. Because B vitamins are water-soluble vitamins, they can’t be stored in the body. If a person does not get sufficient amounts of vitamin B3 from food, a deficiency quickly develops.
For more information about what is vitamin B3 and what is the deficiency symptoms of vitamin B3 please click this link
Vitamin B3 Importance and its Functions:
Vitamin B3 or niacin is one of the most important B-vitamins needed by the body for several functions that it performs for your health.
- Reverses Risk of Heart Diseases: Significant levels of niacin in the body can help lower triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein in the blood. It also improves the levels of high-density lipoprotein significantly. This, in turn, can reverse the risk of heart diseases. It also prevents the buildup of plaque in the arteries
- Prevents the Onset of Diabetes: Niacin is required to prevent the onset of type two diabetes. Diabetes in most of the times, caused because of autoimmune response. The body attacks the insulin making cells in the pancreases, preventing the body from producing insulin. Niacin blocks the immune factors from destroying the insulin releasing cells. It also improves insulin sensitivity and production.
- Improves Joint Mobility: Niacin can help people suffering from arthritis and osteoarthritis greatly. Taking 200 milligrams of niacin daily can show marked improvement in your joint mobility.
- Treats Migraine: Sufficient levels of niacin in the body can also prevent migraine. The dilating effects of this nutrient stabilize the over-constricting cycle of cerebral blood vessels, treating migraine.
- Reduces Cancer Risks: Proper niacin levels can also reduce the risk of cancer. It ensures the integrity and maintenance of DNA by regulating tumor suppressor gene p53.
- Slows Down AIDS Progression: Niacin also slows the progression of AIDS and increases the chances of survival.
Some chronic medical conditions can cause B3 deficiency.
Drinking too much alcohol can lead to vitamin B3 deficiency.
Vitamin B3 deficiency is easy to treat.
How much niacin do I need?
The amount of niacin you need depends on your age and sex. Average daily recommended amounts are listed below in milligrams (mg) of niacin equivalents (NE) (except for infants in their first 6 months). Vitamin B3 deficiency is now rare in most developed countries. By the 1950s, food producers were routinely adding niacin to breads and cereals. As a result, the incidence of vitamin B3 deficiency decreased dramatically. Today, wherever people have access to a wide variety of foods, vitamin B3 deficiency is rare. For most people, eating lean meats, poultry, eggs, fish, dairy products, and other vitamin B3-rich foods, on a regular basis, can prevent vitamin B3 deficiency. However, people who are living in poverty and lack access to healthy foods remain at risk.
The mg NE measure is used because your body can also make niacin from tryptophan, an amino acid in proteins. For example, when you eat turkey, which is high in tryptophan, some of this amino acid is converted to niacin in your liver. Using mg NE accounts for both the niacin you consume and the niacin your body makes from tryptophan. Infants in their first six months do not make much niacin from tryptophan.
|Life Stage||Recommended Amount|
|Birth to 6 months||2 mg|
|Infants 7–12 months||4 mg NE|
|Children 1–3 years||6 mg NE|
|Children 4–8 years||8 mg NE|
|Children 9–13 years||12 mg NE|
|Teen boys 14–18 years||16 mg NE|
|Teen girls 14–18 years||14 mg NE|
|Adult men 19+ years||16 mg NE|
|Adult women 19+ years||14 mg NE|
|Pregnant teens and women||18 mg NE|
|Breastfeeding teens and women||17 mg NE|
What foods provide Vitamin B3 (niacin)?
Good sources of vitamin B3 (niacin) include yeast, meat, poultry, red fish (e.g., tuna, salmon), cereals, legumes, and seeds. Milk, green leafy vegetables, coffee, and tea also provide some niacin. In plants, especially mature cereal grains like corn and wheat, vitamin B3 (niacin) may be bound to sugar molecules in the form of ‘glycosides’, which significantly decrease niacin bioavailability.
The amono acid tryptophan contributes as much as two thirds of the niacin activity required by adults in typical diets. Important food sources of tryptophan are meat, milk and eggs.Nicotinamide is the form of vitamin B3 typically used in nutritional supplements and in food fortification.
Due to the potential for side effects, medical supervision is recommended for the use of vitamin B3 (nicotinic acid) as a cholesterol-lowering agent.
Niacin is found naturally in many foods, and is added to some foods. You can get recommended amounts of niacin by eating a variety of foods, including the following:
- Animal foods, such as poultry, beef, pork, and fish
- Some types of nuts, legumes, and grains
- Enriched and fortified foods, such as many breads and cereals
Niacin is present in a wide variety of foods. Many animal-based foods—including poultry, beef, and fish—provide about 5-10 mg niacin per serving, primarily in the highly bioavailable forms of NAD and NADP . Plant-based foods, such as nuts, legumes, and grains, provide about 2-5 mg niacin per serving, mainly as nicotinic acid. In some grain products, however, naturally present niacin is largely bound to polysaccharides and glycopeptides that make it only about 30% bioavailable. Many breads, cereals, and infant formulas in the United States and many other countries contain added niacin. Niacin that is added to enriched and fortified foods is in its free form and therefore highly bioavailable.
Tryptophan is another food source of niacin because this amino acid—when present in amounts beyond that required for protein synthesis—can be converted to NAD, mainly in the liver. The most commonly used estimate of efficiency for tryptophan conversion to NAD is 1:60 (i.e., 1 mg niacin [NAD] from 60 mg tryptophan). Turkey is an example of a food high in tryptophan; a 3-oz portion of turkey breast meat provides about 180 mg tryptophan, which could be equivalent to 3 mg niacin . However, the efficiency of the conversion of tryptophan to NAD varies considerably in different people .
Table 2 lists several food sources of niacin.
|Beef liver, pan fried, 3 ounces||14.9||93|
|Chicken breast, meat only, grilled, 3 ounces||10.3||64|
|Marinara (spaghetti) sauce, ready to serve, 1 cup||10.3||64|
|Turkey breast, meat only, roasted, 3 ounces||10.0||63|
|Salmon, sockeye, cooked, 3 ounces||8.6||54|
|Tuna, light, canned in water, drained, 3 ounces||8.6||54|
|Pork, tenderloin, roasted, 3 ounces||6.3||39|
|Beef, ground, 90% lean, pan-browned, 3 ounces||5.8||36|
|Rice, brown, cooked, 1 cup||5.2||33|
|Breakfast cereals fortified with 25% DV niacin||5.0||31|
|Peanuts, dry roasted, 1 ounce||4.2||26|
|Rice, white, enriched, cooked, 1 cup||2.3||14|
|Potato (russet), baked, 1 medium||2.3||14|
|Sunflower seeds, dry roasted, 1 ounce||2.0||13|
|Bread, whole wheat, 1 slice||1.4||9|
|Pumpkin seeds, dry roasted, 1 ounce||1.3||8|
|Soymilk, unfortified, 1 cup||1.3||8|
|Bread, white, enriched, 1 slice||1.3||8|
|Lentils, boiled and drained, ½ cup||1.0||6|
|Bulgur, cooked, 1 cup||0.9||6|
|Banana, 1 medium||0.8||5|
|Edamame, frozen, prepared, ½ cup||0.7||4|
|Raisins, ½ cup||0.6||4|
|Tomatoes, cherry, ½ cup||0.5||3|
|Broccoli, boiled, drained, chopped, ½ cup||0.4||3|
|Cashews, dry roasted, 1 ounce||0.4||3|
|Yogurt, plain, low fat, 1 cup||0.3||2|
|Apple, 1 medium||0.2||1|
|Chickpeas, canned, drained, 1 cup||0.2||1|
|Milk, 1% milkfat, 1 cup||0.2||1|
|Spinach, frozen, chopped, boiled, ½ cup||0.2||1|
|Tofu, raw, firm, ½ cup||0.2||1|
|Onions, chopped, ½ cup||0.1||1|
* These values are for the niacin content of foods only. They do not include the contribution of tryptophan, some of which is converted to NAD in the body.
** DV = Daily Value. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed DVs to help consumers compare the nutrient contents of foods and dietary supplements within the context of a total diet. The DV for niacin on the new Nutrition Facts and Supplement Facts labels and used for the values in Table 2 is 16 mg for adults and children aged 4 years and older .
FDA required manufacturers to use these new labels starting in January 2020, but companies with annual sales of less than $10 million may continue to use the old labels that list a niacin DV of 20 mg until January 2021 .
The FDA does not require food labels to list niacin content unless niacin has been added to the food. Foods providing 20% of more of the DV are considered to be high sources of a nutrient.
Top 20 Vitamin B3 Food Sources:
Some of the best sources of niacin include:
Fish is considered to be one of the best sources of vitamin B3. Among the fish, tuna is exceptionally high in vitamin B3, providing 22.1 mg or 110% of the daily value (DV) of this vitamin in a 100 grams serving. It is also rich in omega-3 fatty acids and protein. Thus, consuming it on a regular basis will prevent you from deficiency. Other varieties of fish that contain vitamin B3 include skipjack tuna (80% DV), mackerel and bluefin tuna (45% DV), wild salmon (43% DV), swordfish (39% DV), farmed salmon and halibut (34% DV each) in a 3 oz serving.
2. Chicken and Turkey:
Chicken and turkey are extremely popular foods and the good news is that they are amazing sources of niacin as well. A serving of 100 grams cooked chicken breast provides 14.8 mg or 74% DV of vitamin B3. Turkey is easily available and is widely used in sandwiches. However, to avoid unwanted nitrates and sodium found in deli meats, it is advisable to go for roasted turkey breast. Roasted light turkey meat contributes nearly 50% DV of vitamin B3 in a 3 oz. serving.
Pork is one of the most widely consumed meats after chicken and beef, but it has a higher content of vitamin B3 when compared to both. A serving of 100 grams cooked lean pork chops contains 10.9 mg niacin contributing 54%DV. Other pork items that are good sources of vitamin B3 include lean mince and sirloin providing 44% and 35% DV of vitamin B3 respectively in 3 oz. serving each. You can have pork few times in a week, but always opt for lean cuts to keep the fat content to the minimum.
Beef is another great source of vitamin B3 providing 9 mg or 45% DV in a 100 grams serving of cooked lean rib. Other beef cuts that are good sources of niacin include lean sirloin steak (38% DV), beef fillet (37% DV) and tenderloin (36% DV) in a 3 oz. serving.
5. Fresh Green Peas:
Vegetarians need not worry about their vitamin B3 intake as there are plenty of vegetarian foods rich in this vitamin, green peas being one of them. A serving of 100 grams fresh green peas provides 2.1 mg or 10% DV of niacin. Similarly a cup of cooked frozen peas and canned peas contribute 12% and 8% DV of niacin respectively. They are also good sources of protein. Besides, they are quite versatile and can be added to any recipe to boost your vitamin B3 levels.
6. Sunflower Seeds:
Sunflower seeds are known for their variety of nutrients and vitamin B3 is no exception. A 100 grams serving of sunflower seeds provides you with 8.3 mg or 42% DV of vitamin B3. They are also a rich source of vitamin E and other B complex vitamins like folic acid, thiamine (vitamin B1), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), riboflavin and pantothenic acid. Apart from these, they contain polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid and monounsaturated acid oleic acid as well as amino acid tryptophan. So these seeds deserve to be included in your diet. Other seeds also contain vitamin B3 such as chia seeds (12%DV), sesame seeds (8% DV) and pumpkin and squash seeds (7% DV) in an ounce serving.
All types of mushrooms are rich in vitamin B3. Shiitake mushrooms are the best with 100 grams serving providing 14.1 mg or 71% DV of niacin. They also possess anti-cancer properties. A 100 grams serving of grilled Portobello provides 6.3 mg or 31% DV of vitamin B3. Other mushrooms that contain significant amounts of niacin include cooked white mushroom (35% DV), raw oyster (21% DV), raw brown mushroom (14% DV) and raw chanterelle (11% DV).
Among the fruits, avocado is a good source of vitamin B3. A single avocado provides 3.5 mg or 17% DV of niacin. However, it should be consumed in moderation as it is also high in calories. Just half an avocado contains 160 calories.
These crunchy legumes can greatly help in fulfilling your vitamin B3 requirements. A serving of 100 grams peanuts roasted in oil provides 13.8 mg or 69% DV of vitamin B3. They are also high in calories with an ounce serving containing 168 calories. Peanut butter is equally beneficial in terms of vitamin B3 if it contains peanuts as the sole ingredient.
Organ meats score high in terms of their nutritional value and vitamin B3 is one of them. Liver is an excellent source with a single cooked lamb liver providing a whopping 53.7 mg or 269% DV of niacin. Other livers that are high in niacin include beef (75% DV), veal (61% DV), chicken (57% DV) and (pork 36% DV).
All kinds of red meats contain high levels or niacin and protein that provide the right fuel balance to an active body. Bacon is not usually considered healthy due to its high fat, cholesterol and calorie content. However, a serving of bacon once or twice a week can help you meet the daily value of niacin quite easily. Make sure you eat bacon in moderation, especially if you are on a weight loss diet. A 100 grams serving of bacon provides you with 11 milligrams of niacin and 476 calories.
Broccoli is one of the best natural sources of niacin. One serving of cooked or steamed broccoli can provide you with 1 milligram of niacin and just 34 calories. Besides providing the body with sufficient amounts of niacin, broccoli also provides several other benefits that can contribute to optimal well-being. It helps you get protein, fiber, antioxidants and a host of other nutrients.
A diet rich in protein will surely provide enough niacin for your daily needs. Veal is one of the best food sources of niacin. The niacin content in veal varies according to its cuts. A daily serving of veal can help you meet two thirds of the daily-recommended allowance of niacin.
14. Organ Meat:
The nutritional content in organ meats makes it hard to overlook them, in spite of being the least favorite of the majority of people. Organ meats of most of the animals are excellent sources of essential nutrients and minerals, niacin being one of them. Almost all the organ meats are a good source of niacin, with most of them providing more than 10 milligrams per 100 gram servings.
Asparagus is one of the most nutrient dense foods you can add to your plate. It is a good source of niacin too, with one serving providing 1 milligram of niacin and just 20 calories. Add asparagus to the meat like chicken or beef to increase their nutritional value. You can also prepare asparagus as a main dish.
The biggest benefit of caffeine is that it contains all the niacin that you require for a day. 1 cup of coffee contains around 40 milligrams and 1 calorie. Coffee can also help reduce triglyceride levels when taken with minimal sugar and in moderation. However, high caffeine content can have detrimental effects on the body. So, consume coffee in moderation.
Kidney beans might not be the best source of niacin, but can contribute at least some amount of this rare nutrient to your body. A 100 grams serving contains 2 milligrams of niacin and 127 calories. Kidney beans are extremely versatile. You can use them as a side or main dish or can integrate in a chili soup.
Tahini, also known as sesame butter, is a great source of protein and other essential nutrients including niacin. Use tahini sparingly as they are high in calories and can increase your recommended caloric intake considerably. A 100 grams serving of tahini provides 7 milligrams of niacin and 600 calories.
Most of the cereals these days come fortified with several essential vitamins and minerals, including niacin. A 100 grams serving of cereals can provide you with 30 to 58 milligrams of niacin. The high fiber content in cereals will keep you full until lunchtime, reducing junk food cravings. Make sure you choose cereals with less sugar content to avoid consuming too many calories. Other whole grains rich in niacin include wheat bran, pearled barley and long grained brown rice. It is better to obtain niacin from the natural sources as much as possible.
Bell peppers are not high in niacin, but can help you reach the daily level to a great extent. Bell peppers go well with most of the dishes, so you can incorporate it in any meal you want to. 100 grams of bell peppers contain 1 milligram of niacin and 20 calories. Bell peppers can also increase the bulk and satiety levels in the meal, helping to reduce the lipid levels.
What kinds of niacin dietary supplements are available?
Niacin is found in multivitamin/multimineral supplements. It is also available in B-complex dietary supplements and supplements containing only niacin. The two main forms of niacin in dietary supplements are nicotinic acid and nicotinamide.
Niacin (in the form of nicotinic acid) is also available as a prescription medicine used to treat high blood cholesterol levels.
Am I getting enough niacin?
Most people in the United States get enough niacin from the foods they eat. Niacin deficiency is very rare in the United States. However, some people are more likely than others to have trouble getting enough niacin:
- Undernourished people with AIDS, alcohol use disorder, anorexia, inflammatory bowel disease, or liver cirrhosis
- People whose diet has too little iron, riboflavin, or vitamin B6; these nutrients are needed to convert tryptophan to niacin
- People with Hartnup disease, a rare genetic disorder
- People with carcinoid syndrome, a condition in which slow-growing tumors develop in the gastrointestinal tract
What happens if I don’t get enough niacin?
You can develop niacin deficiency if you don’t get enough niacin or tryptophan from the foods you eat. Severe niacin deficiency leads to a disease called pellagra. Pellagra, which is uncommon in developed countries, can have these effects:
- Rough skin that turns red or brown in the sun
- A bright red tongue
- Vomiting, constipation, or diarrhea
- Extreme tiredness
- Aggressive, paranoid, or suicidal behavior
- Hallucinations, apathy, loss of memory
In its final stages, pellagra leads to loss of appetite followed by death.
What are some effects of niacin on health?
Scientists are studying niacin to better understand how it affects health. Here is an example of what this research has shown.
Scientists have studied the use of large doses of niacin in the form of nicotinic acid to help reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke in people with atherosclerosis. They found that prescription-strength nicotinic acid (more than 100 times the recommended dietary allowance) can lower blood levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol, raise levels of HDL (good) cholesterol, and lower levels of triglycerides. But these favorable effects on blood lipids (fats) don’t affect the risk of having a cardiovascular event, such as heart attack, sudden cardiac death, or stroke. In addition, experts do not recommend high doses of nicotinic acid for people taking a statin medication.
Your healthcare provider should approve and supervise any use of very high doses of nicotinic acid (in the thousands of milligrams) to treat atherosclerosis.
Can niacin be harmful?
The niacin that food naturally contains is safe. However, dietary supplements with 30 mg or more of nicotinic acid can make the skin on your face, arms, and chest turn red and burn, tingle, and itch. These symptoms can also lead to headaches, rashes, and dizziness.
If you take nicotinic acid as a medication in doses of 1,000 or more mg/day, it can cause more severe side effects. These include:
- Low blood pressure (which can increase the risk of falls)
- Extreme tiredness
- High blood sugar levels
- Nausea, heartburn, and abdominal pain
- Blurred or impaired vision and fluid buildup in the eyes
Long-term treatment, especially with extended-release forms of nicotinic acid, can cause liver problems, including hepatitis and liver failure.
Niacin in the form of nicotinamide has fewer side effects than nicotinic acid. However, at high doses of 500 mg/day or more, nicotinamide can cause diarrhea, easy bruising, and can increase bleeding from wounds. Even higher doses of 3,000 mg/day or more can cause nausea, vomiting, and liver damage.
The daily upper limits for niacin from dietary supplements are listed below.
|Birth to 12 months||Not established|
|Children 1–3 years||10 mg|
|Children 4–8 years||15 mg|
|Children 9–13 years||20 mg|
|Teens 14–18 years||30 mg|
|Adults 19+ years||35 mg|
Are there any interactions with niacin that I should know about?
Niacin dietary supplements can interact or interfere with certain medicines that you take, and some medicines can lower niacin levels in your body. Here are some examples:
- Tuberculosis drugs (such as isoniazid and pyrazinamide) interfere with the body’s ability to convert tryptophan to niacin. This interference can lower niacin levels in your body.
- High doses of nicotinic acid (1,500 mg/day or more) can raise blood sugar levels and interfere with the effectiveness of diabetes medications. These doses can even raise blood sugar levels in people who don’t have diabetes.
Tell your doctor, pharmacist, and other healthcare providers about any dietary supplements and prescription or over-the-counter medicines you take. They can tell you if the dietary supplements might interact with your medicines. They can also tell you if the medicines might interfere with how your body absorbs, uses, or breaks down niacin and other nutrients.
Which USANA Products contain Vitamin B3 ( Niacin ) ?
per serving of cellsentials usana contains 20mg niacin (Vitamin B3 ), and other vitamin and Minerals.
High-potency vitamin A in Vita Antioxidant comes from three sources: retinyl acetate, mixed carotenoids, and beta-carotene. Retinyl acetate is preformed vitamin A for those whose bodies don’t efficiently convert beta carotene to vitamin A. The plant-derived mixed carotenoids include alpha-carotene, gamma-carotene, lycopene, beta-carotene, and more. Beta-carotene is the provitamin form of vitamin A. That means it converts to vitamin A in the body only as needed. It helps maintain a strong heart, immune function, and eye and lung health. The carotenoid antioxidants help maintain skin and eye health by providing oxidative defense against damaging sources of free radicals from the environment.*
Vita Antioxidant is an excellent source of vitamins B6 and B12, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folate. The B vitamins are essential to many aspects of your health. You need them for energy and metabolism; immune function; and healthy hair, skin, and nails.*
Maintaining your cardiovascular health also requires B vitamins. They help maintain already healthy homocysteine levels.* And, as part of a well-balanced diet—that’s low in saturated fat and cholesterol—folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 may reduce the risk of vascular disease. The FDA evaluated the above claim and found that while it is known that diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol reduce the risk of heart disease and other vascular diseases, the evidence in support of the above claim is inconclusive.
B vitamins also support normal brain and nerve function. Folate is especially important for women of childbearing age to help support healthy fetal brain and nerve development.*
Inositol, which is sometimes referred to as vitamin B8, is a sugar alcohol that has B-vitamin-like activity to support healthy cellular function and communication.*
Your daily dose of sunshine! Support your whole-body health with the high-potency vitamin D in Vita Antioxidant. Many people don’t get enough vitamin D, even those in sunny climates. And this important nutrient continues to show benefits for many aspects of health. It supports calcium absorption for healthy bone density. It also supports healthy cell growth as well as muscle, cardiovascular, and immune function. Vita Antioxidant uses vitamin D3. Research suggests it is better at raising levels of vitamin D in the blood.*
Vitamin E and Mixed Tocopherols
Vita Antioxidant is a good source of vitamin E. It also contains 20 mg of mixed D-gamma, D-delta, and D-beta tocopherols in each tablet. The mixed tocopherols, though not technically vitamin E, offer similar functions. Antioxidants, like vitamin E, help defend your cells against the oxidative stress caused by sunlight, pollution, and stress. All of these can prematurely age your skin. When combined with zinc, beta-carotene, and vitamin C, as in the CellSentials, vitamin E also helps maintain long-term eye health.*
Vita Antioxidant is rich in vitamin C. USANA uses a unique Poly C® vitamin C blend, which provides higher levels of vitamin C in plasma than ascorbic acid alone.*
Vitamin C is essential for making collagen—proteins that provide elasticity to your connective tissues. That’s why vitamin C is helpful in maintaining healthy veins and arteries, muscles, cartilage, tendons, bones, teeth, and skin. It also supports fat and protein metabolism, as well as the healthy production of immune cells.*
Note: You will notice 300 mg of vitamin C on the Core Minerals label. This is because the magnesium and calcium blends are made partly from the ascorbate forms of the nutrients. Ascorbate is a source of vitamin C.
Vita Antioxidant is high in vitamin K1 and K2 for maximum effectiveness, as both forms have been shown to be beneficial for bone mineral density. This essential nutrient also has shown benefits for blood clotting and vascular health. Vitamin K is absorbed quickly, but also disappears from circulation in about six hours. So, regular dietary intake of vitamin K throughout the day is important for maintaining adequate amounts in the body. *
See a healthy future for your eyes with lutein. This yellow-pigmented carotenoid is concentrated in the eye’s macula. It acts as a filter for blue light to aid clear vision. Lutein also helps support healthy skin.*
Get an added boost of heart and skin health support with lycopene. It’s one of the six major carotenoids found in your blood. But, your body can’t make lycopene. It must come from your diet. The red-pigmented nutrient is most often found in red fruits and vegetables. It offers great antioxidant activity and also supports intracellular communication.*
Choline is usually grouped with the B vitamins, even though it is not technically a vitamin. Regardless of classification, this key nutrient supports cell structure. It aids in the transmission of nerve impulses from the brain throughout the central nervous system. Choline also supports liver function and helps maintain healthy homocysteine levels.*
To keep you and your cells full of energy, Vita Antioxidant also includes coenzyme q10. This compound is key to producing the energy needed to power all of your cells. It also acts as an antioxidant to protect against damaging oxidative stress generated during the production of cellular energy.*
If you would like to supplement with more coenzyme q10, consider trying USANA® CoQuinone.