Vitamin B4, also known as Adenine, is one of the eight vitamins that belong to the B-Complex, alongside with Vitamin B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid), B6, B7 (biotin), B9 (Folic Acid), and B12 (cobalamins). Actually Vitamin B4 is a former designation given to several distinct chemical compounds, none of which is currently considered a true vitamin. This article is about the:
Adenine is particularly important to DNA and RNA formation, being one of the two bases required for the formation of these nucleic acids. Adenine binds to Thymine, one of the four nucleobases in the DNA nucleic acid, and contributes to ensuring the equilibrium of the structure. On the other hand, Adenine binds to Uracil to stabilize RNA nucleic acid structure.
Adenine (A) is one of four chemical bases in DNA, with the other three being cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). Within the DNA molecule, adenine bases located on one strand form chemical bonds with thymine bases on the opposite strand. The sequence of four DNA bases encodes the cell’s genetic instructions. A form of adenine called adenosine triphosphate (ATP) serves as an energy storage molecule and is used to power many chemical reactions within the cell.
Vitamin B4: can refer to the distinct chemicals choline, adenine, or carnitine. Choline is synthesized by the human body, but not sufficiently to maintain good health, and is now considered an essential dietary nutrient. Adenine is a nucleobase synthesized by the human body. Carnitine is an essential dietary nutrient for certain worms, but not for humans. 
Vitamin B4 Vitamin B4 is a former designation given to several distinct chemical compounds, none of which is currently considered a true vitamin: Adenine; Carnitine; Choline 
What Vitamin B4 Is Good For
Vitamin B4 is necessary for the healthy functioning of the liver. It reduces the degree of liver damage in chronic hepatitis and alcoholism.
Choline has an antisclerotic effect and lowers cholesterol. It is used for the prevention of atherosclerosis, improves the cardiovascular system, is effective in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.
Vitamin B4 enhances the brain, protecting its cells from damage. In older people choline supplementation improves the memory.
How to Keep Choline In Your Food
Choline is readily soluble in water. When cooking foods substantial part washed out and remains in the broth. Detrimental effect on it has the high temperatures used for cooking food.
Vitamin B4 is destroyed by sulfa drugs, alcohol, antibiotics and female sex hormone estrogen. Thus, the food should be eaten raw or as much as possible with minimal processing.
Getting sufficient amounts of B vitamins inside your body is important for the normal functioning of vital organs and body functions. You should remember that all B vitamins are water soluble, and hence constantly supplying them to our body is required to fulfill the nutritional needs of our bodies.
Which foods contains rich Adenine ?
There are several food sources available for vitamin B4, which you should make sure to include in your daily diet. These sources include whole grains, whole bread, and numerous herbs and herbal extracts such as blue cohosh, caraway, catnip, cloves, hawthorn, jojoba, sage, rose hips, kelp, spearmint, strawberry, yucca, couch grass, ginger or golden seal.
It is possible to enrich your vitamin B 4 intakes by consuming raw honey, Propolis derived products, and bee pollen. A large number of fresh fruits and vegetables are also able to provide you with the right amounts of Vitamin B4, which include apples, oranges, bananas, seeds, tomatoes, and green leafy vegetables among the richest sources of B vitamins in general, including adenine.
Foods full of vitamin B4 should be a part of your daily diet to decrease the chances of vitamin B4 deficiency. So, have a look at some of the foods that are rich in vitamin B4.
Raw honey is the most widely consumed food. Since, ancient times, it has been used for a wide range of spiritual, cosmetic and medicinal uses. Raw honey contains vitamin B4, which is nutritionally superior to processed honey. Buy raw and organic honey to consume it once in a while.
2. Whole Grains
Whole grains are a good source of several B vitamins, including vitamin B4. Include whole grains like oats, wheat, barley, rice, maize and rye in your diet that will provide you with carbohydrates, which the body uses for energy. The outermost portion of the grain, the bran and the germ contains majority of the vitamins and minerals.
3. Whole Wheat Bread
Bread has long been a part of the human diet for several years. Bread provides B-complex vitamins, which includes vitamin B4 as well. It provides essential nutrients, including carbohydrates for energy and minerals such as iron and selenium for tissue health.
Cloves are the widely used spices in India used in a variety of cooking dishes. It has been used for thousand of years in India and China, not only as a spice but also as a medicine. Cloves are rich in vitamin B4, which when consumed can decrease nausea and prevent diabetes.
5. Caraway Seeds
Caraway seeds, also known as jeera, is one of the dominant spices featuring in several savoury dishes. They are a rich source of vitamin B4 and contain excellent source of minerals like iron, copper, calcium, potassium, manganese and magnesium.
berries contain antioxidants and vitamin B4 that have the power to boost up your health. Strawberries improve the vision of the eyes, maintain a proper brain function, relieve you from high blood pressure, arthritis and various cardiovascular diseases. So, to prevent vitamin B4 deficiency, eat strawberries more often.
Capsicum is a pungent edible fruit that is used as a culinary spice. It contains vitamin B4 and other bioactive components that can provide relief from stomach issues, back pain, headaches, cancer, skin ageing and diabetes.
Apples are one of the most delicious and popular fruits. Apples contain a lot of vitamins and minerals, including vitamin B4, vitamin C, vitamin K, vitamin B6 and riboflavin. The fruit can prevent Alzheimer’s disease, stomach problems, constipation, diabetes and liver disorders.
Ginger contains vitamin B4, which is the most widely used dietary condiment in the world. Ginger also contains antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties that has the ability to prevent stroke, indigestion, nausea, boost immunity function, and prevent bacterial infections.
Tomato provides a great boost to the health along with improving the flavour of food. They contain vitamin B4, vitamins A, C and K as well as potassium, manganese, magnesium and other important minerals. This helps in reducing blood pressure, it is good for stomach health, provides relief from skin problems, diabetes, and urinary tract infections.
What is Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)?
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) functions primarily as part of two coenzymes: flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN). These coenzymes participate in oxidation-reduction reactions needed for the production of energy from glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids.
Signs of clinical deficiency include cheilosis (reddened and fissured lips), stomatitis (inflammation of the mouth), seborrheic dermatitis, anemia, glossitis (purple and swollen tongue), and neuropathy. Subclinical deficiency may produce symptoms such as increased sensitivity to light with loss of visual acuity, and burning or soreness of the lips, mouth, and tongue.
Riboflavin deficiency is almost always accompanied by deficiencies in other B vitamins, particularly niacin and pyridoxine. Athletes, alcoholics, and pregnant women are at higher risk for deficiency.
Riboflavin is widely distributed in small amounts in many foods. Milk and dairy products are the best sources. No oral toxicity has ever been reported.
For More information, please check
What is Vitamin B4 (Adenine) and the Benefits of Vitamin B4 ? What is the Signs and Causes of a Vitamin B4 Deficiency ?
 – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B_vitamins
 – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_B4
 – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B_vitamins
Many of the following substances have been referred to as vitamins as they were once believed to be vitamins. They are no longer considered as such, and the numbers that were assigned to them now form the “gaps” in the true series of B-complex vitamins described above (for example, there is no vitamin B4). Some of them, though not essential to humans, are essential in the diets of other organisms; others have no known nutritional value and may even be toxic under certain conditions. 
- Vitamin B4: can refer to the distinct chemicals choline, adenine, or carnitine. Choline is synthesized by the human body, but not sufficiently to maintain good health, and is now considered an essential dietary nutrient. Adenine is a nucleobase synthesized by the human body. Carnitine is an essential dietary nutrient for certain worms, but not for humans.
- Vitamin B8: adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as adenylic acid. Vitamin B8 may also refer to inositol.
- Vitamin B10: para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA or PABA), a chemical component of the folate molecule produced by plants and bacteria, and found in many foods. It is best known as a UV-blocking sunscreen applied to the skin, and is sometimes taken orally for certain medical conditions.
- Vitamin B11: pteryl-hepta-glutamic acid (PHGA; chick growth factor). Vitamin Bc-conjugate was also found to be identical to PHGA.
- Vitamin B13: orotic acid.
- Vitamin B14: cell proliferant, anti-anemia, rat growth factor, and antitumor pterin phosphate, named by Earl R. Norris. Isolated from human urine at 0.33ppm (later in blood), but later abandoned by him as further evidence did not confirm this. He also claimed this was not xanthopterin.
- Vitamin B15: pangamic acid, also known as pangamate. Promoted in various forms as a dietary supplement and drug; considered unsafe and subject to seizure by the US Food and Drug Administration.
- Vitamin B16: dimethylglycine (DMG) is synthesized by the human body from choline.
- Vitamin B17: pseudoscientific name for the poisonous compound amygdalin, also known as the equally pseudoscientific name “nitrilosides” despite the fact that it is a single compound. Amygdalin can be found in various plants, but is most commonly extracted from apricot pits and other similar fruit kernels. Amygdalin is hydrolyzed by various intestinal enzymes to form, among other things, hydrogen cyanide, which is toxic to human beings when exposed to a high enough dosage. Some proponents claim that amygdalin is effective in cancer treatment and prevention, despite its toxicity and a severe lack of scientific evidence.
- Vitamin B20: L-carnitine.
- Vitamin Bf: carnitine.
- Vitamin Bm: myo-inositol, also called “mouse antialopaecia factor”.
- Vitamin Bp: “antiperosis factor”, which prevents perosis, a leg disorder, in chicks; can be replaced by choline and manganese salts.
- Vitamin BT: carnitine.
- Vitamin Bv: a type of B6 other than pyridoxine.
- Vitamin BW: a type of biotin other than d-biotin.
- Vitamin Bx: an alternative name for both pABA (see vitamin B10) and pantothenic acid.