What is Vitamin B4 (Adenine) ?
Adenine is most known for its role in speeding up the process by which energy is manufactured in our body. Not only that, as a purine derivative, it plays a crucial role in protein synthesis and accompanying chemical processes. Furthermore, it is an important component of both DNA and RNA, which are nucleic acids that provide our genetic information. itamin B4 is a water soluble and infamous vitamin. It is a component of DNA, RNA, ATP, and the three coenzymes NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), NADH (a reduced form of NAD) and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide). Adenine functions synergistically and closely with vitamins B2 and B3 to generate energy.
Without vitamin B4, cell formation and the healthy development of our body tissues would likely be impaired; along with that, our immune system could possibly be compromised, hindering the ability of our body to fight off viruses and infections. It can also play an important role in maintaining healthy blood sugar levels, stopping the degeneration and mutation of cells, and ward off the activities of free radicals, thus possibly slowing down our aging process through means such as helping us maintain energy levels.
Vitamin B4 is particularly important for DNA and RNA formation. But this vitamin also has other functions, including promotion of cell formation and ensuring healthy tissue development. Vitamin B4, or adenine, also helps in boosting the immune system, hence increasing the body’s resistance to infections and illness.
Food sources: Whole grains such as cereals and breads top the list, although we can enrich our bodies with B4 by eating products such as propolis, bee pollen, and raw unprocessed honey. Eating a well-rounded diet of fresh fruit and vegetables also helps supply us with B4, as do a wide variety of herbals to include cloves, thyme, sage, ginger, spearmint, jojoba, hawthorne, and blessed thistle, just to name a few.
What is the Signs and Causes of a Vitamin B4 Deficiency ?
A deficiency of vitamin B4 in the human body can be caused by inadequate dietary intake it. Choline is destroyed by the introduction of certain substances, such as nicotinic acid, as well as a lack of folic acid. People who are deficient in Vitamin b4 may experience one or more of the following symptoms: skin disorders, blood disorders, nausea, slow physical growth rate, fatigue, vertigo, allergies, fable immune system function, sensitivity to insulin, muscle weakness, GI disturbances, depressed mood, physical exhaustion like feelings, anemia, and increased incidence of infection under all forms.
There is no known for of artificial or natural Vitamin B4 available in the form of dietary supplements. Therefore it is advised that, in case you observe one or more of the symptoms mentioned above, you talk to a specialized healthcare provider and see how you can enhance intakes from a dietary source, which we will detail in the following section of this review.
A daily diet that includes sufficient and balanced intakes of complex carbohydrates should be able to prevent dangerous imbalances that may lead to a deficiency.
Potential antagonists of vitamin B4 (that would counteract its effects) are the same as for most B complex vitamins and include coffee, tea, cocoa, mineral water, overcooked foods, refined and processed foods, herbicides, pesticides, fertilizers, alcoholic beverages, and several others.
Deficiency of vitamin B4 is observed with:
- an increase in body weight,
- improving blood cholesterol
- arrhythmia, hypertension,
- headaches, memory loss,
- fear, anxiety , insomnia,
- liver disease (fat accumulation), kidneys,
- developmental delay and growth.
Choline and other vitamins are closely linked. Thus, the synthesis of vitamin B4 in the body contributes to vitamins B9 and B12. Harmful effects of choline excess and substances interacting with him eliminate vitamin B1 (thiamine) and B3 (niacin).
What is the functions of Vitamin B4(Adenine)?
Very little is known about the structure, functioning mechanisms and health-enhancing properties of vitamin B4 or Adenine. Being a water-soluble vitamin as are all B vitamins, we can conclude that it is easily dissolvable into water hence no supplies can be made by the body for later use. Instead, constant supplies must be provided, so that replenishing and fulfilling body requirements are ensured and further imbalances are avoided.
Adenine’s most notable functions relate to its coenzyme role, meaning it binds and reacts to various other substances. It is important to various energy production processes. Particularly, Vitamin B4 is used to produce ATP or Adenosine Triphosphate, resulted from various processes that take place inside every cell, in the mitochondria part of the cell, also known as the cell’s “power plant.” Although a large part of the process through which ATP is produced remains unclear, it is without a doubt the fact that Vitamin b4 plays a vital role in this process.
Several research studies have explained how caffeine can bind to adenosine receptors, helping enhance nerve signaling and determining a release in adrenaline. This, in turn, is claimed to be responsible for the revitalizing effect of coffee, associated with increased heart rate and enhanced blood pressure that results from boosted levels of adrenaline. A downside of this adenosine binding mechanism would be the fact that caffeine consumption can trigger arrhythmias, abnormal beatings of the heart, and hence caution is advised to patients with a heart condition history.
Other important functions of Vitamin B4 include promotion of cell formation and ensuring healthy tissue development. Adenine helps boost the immune system function, hence increasing the body’s resistance to infections and illness in general. Additionally, the nutrient may possess antioxidant benefits at some level, therefore helping the body prevent and counteract the adverse effects associated with oxidative stress.
- It helps with protein synthesis.
- Working closely with vitamins B2 and B3, it involves in generating energy by being a component of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
- It may increase sensitivity of the cells to insulin.
- When combined with ribose, it forms adenosine which is highly important for normal heart function.
- It may stimulate the release of the hormone “motilin” from the GI tract.
- It may enhance antibody formation by the immune system.
- It poses an antioxidant activity.
What is the benefits of Vitamin B4 (Adenine) ?
Vitamin B4 or adenine may help in alleviating some of the symptoms and even in preventing the on setting of certain health conditions including: anemia, arteriosclerosis, insomnia, headache, Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s, diabetes, cataracts, high cholesterol, indigestion, duodenal, and peptic ulcer, gallstones, dandruff, alopecia, heart palpitation, gout, infection with bacteria and viruses, faster wound healing, phlebitis, hypertension, allergies, asthma, muscle cramps and atrophy, infertility, vaginitis, wrinkles, acne, cancer, fatigue, stress, psoriasis, sore gums, etc. Limited evidence seems to suggest that vitamin B4 may stimulate lactation for pregnant women. However, a healthcare provider should be consulted in this regard.
The following condition may benefit from vitamin B4:
- Chronic fatigue syndrome.
- Cardiac arrhythmias.
- Chronic constipation.
- HIV support.
- Compromised immune system.
- Hair loss.
- Parkinson`s disease.
- Alzheimer’s disease.
- Weight management.
Athletic Benefits of Vitamin B4:
- Boosts energy level.
- Helps athletes overcome jet lag easily.
- Delays fatigue and exhaustion time.
- Decreases reaction time.
- May improve endurance.
- May improve mental alertness and clarity.
- In the form of NADH, it may enhance the release of growth hormone.
Best Vitamin B4 Sources
Getting sufficient amounts of B vitamins inside your body is important for the normal functioning of vital organs and body functions. You should remember that all B vitamins are water soluble, and hence constantly supplying them to our body is required to fulfill the nutritional needs of our bodies.
There are several food sources available for vitamin B4, which you should make sure to include in your daily diet. These sources include whole grains, whole bread, and numerous herbs and herbal extracts such as blue cohosh, caraway, catnip, cloves, hawthorn, jojoba, sage, rose hips, kelp, spearmint, strawberry, yucca, couch grass, ginger or golden seal.
It is possible to enrich your vitamin B 4 intakes by consuming raw honey, Propolis derived products, and bee pollen. A large number of fresh fruits and vegetables are also able to provide you with the right amounts of Vitamin B4, which include apples, oranges, bananas, seeds, tomatoes, and green leafy vegetables among the richest sources of B vitamins in general, including adenine.
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Vitamin B4: can refer to the distinct chemicals choline, adenine, or carnitine. Choline is synthesized by the human body, but not sufficiently to maintain good health, and is now considered an essential dietary nutrient. Adenine is a nucleobase synthesized by the human body. Carnitine is an essential dietary nutrient for certain worms, but not for humans. 
Vitamin B4 Vitamin B4 is a former designation given to several distinct chemical compounds, none of which is currently considered a true vitamin: Adenine; Carnitine; Choline 
Many of the following substances have been referred to as vitamins as they were once believed to be vitamins. They are no longer considered as such, and the numbers that were assigned to them now form the “gaps” in the true series of B-complex vitamins described above (for example, there is no vitamin B4). Some of them, though not essential to humans, are essential in the diets of other organisms; others have no known nutritional value and may even be toxic under certain conditions. 
- Vitamin B4: can refer to the distinct chemicals choline, adenine, or carnitine. Choline is synthesized by the human body, but not sufficiently to maintain good health, and is now considered an essential dietary nutrient. Adenine is a nucleobase synthesized by the human body. Carnitine is an essential dietary nutrient for certain worms, but not for humans.
- Vitamin B8: adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as adenylic acid. Vitamin B8 may also refer to inositol.
 – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B_vitamins
 – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_B4
 – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B_vitamins